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A few hundred years later, the Minoan civilization emerged on the island of Crete. The Minoans are considered the first advanced civilization in Europe.
The Minoans were traders who exported timber, olive oil, wine and dye to nearby Egypt, Syria , Cyprus and the Greek mainland.
They imported metals and other raw materials, including copper, tin, ivory and precious stones. Around B. Many Greek myths are tied to Mycenae.
The Bronze Age ended abruptly around B. Ancient cities were abandoned, trade routes were lost and literacy declined throughout the region.
Scholars believe a combination of natural catastrophes may have brought down several Bronze Age empires.
Archaeological evidence suggests a succession of severe droughts in the eastern Mediterranean region over a year period from to B.
Earthquakes, famine, sociopolitical unrest and invasion by nomadic tribes may also have played a role. Drought led to collapse of civilizations, study says; National Geographic.
Mycenaean Civilization; Ancient History Encyclopedia. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. The Iron Age was a period in human history that started between B.
During the Iron Age, people across much of Europe, Asia and parts of Africa began making tools and weapons from iron and The Stone Age marks a period of prehistory in which humans used primitive stone tools.
Lasting roughly 2. During the Stone An ice age is a period of colder global temperatures and recurring glacial expansion capable of lasting hundreds of millions of years.
Thanks to the efforts of geologist Louis Agassiz and mathematician Milutin Milankovitch, scientists have determined that variations in the The Fertile Crescent is the boomerang-shaped region of the Middle East that was home to some of the earliest human civilizations.
By definition,  there are no written records from human prehistory, so dating of prehistoric materials is crucial. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the nineteenth century.
This article is concerned with human prehistory, the time since behaviorally and anatomically modern humans first appeared until the beginning of recorded history.
Earlier periods are also called "prehistoric"; there are separate articles for the overall history of the Earth and the history of life before humans.
The notion of "prehistory" began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word 'primitive' to describe societies that existed before written records.
The use of the geologic time scale for pre-human time periods, and of the three-age system for human prehistory, is a system that emerged during the late nineteenth century in the work of British, German, and Scandinavian anthropologists , archeologists , and antiquarians.
The main source of information for prehistory is archaeology a branch of anthropology , but some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences.
The primary researchers into human prehistory are archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation, geologic and geographic surveys, and other scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples.
Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology , but in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures rather than named nations or individuals.
Restricted to material processes, remains, and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous. Because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as " Neanderthal " or " Iron Age ", are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate.
The concept of a "Stone Age" is found useful in the archaeology of most of the world, although in the archaeology of the Americas it is called by different names and begins with a Lithic stage , or sometimes Paleo-Indian.
The sub-divisions described below are used for Eurasia, and not consistently across the whole area. The Paleolithic is the earliest period of the Stone Age.
The early part of the Palaeolithic is called the Lower Palaeolithic , which predates Homo sapiens , beginning with Homo habilis and related species and the earliest stone tools, dated to around 2.
The most widely accepted claim is that H. The use of fire enabled early humans to cook food, provide warmth, and have a light source at night.
Early Homo sapiens originated some , years ago, ushering in the Middle Palaeolithic. Anatomic changes indicating modern language capacity also arise during the Middle Palaeolithic.
Sites in Zambia have charred bone and wood that have been dated to 61, BP. The systematic burial of the dead , music , early art , and the use of increasingly sophisticated multi-part tools are highlights of the Middle Paleolithic.
Throughout the Palaeolithic, humans generally lived as nomadic hunter-gatherers. Hunter-gatherer societies tended to be very small and egalitarian,  although hunter-gatherer societies with abundant resources or advanced food-storage techniques sometimes developed sedentary lifestyles with complex social structures such as chiefdoms,  and social stratification.
Long-distance contacts may have been established, as in the case of Indigenous Australian "highways" known as songlines.
The Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age from the Greek mesos , 'middle', and lithos , 'stone' , was a period in the development of human technology between the Palaeolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age.
The Mesolithic period began at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, some 10, BP, and ended with the introduction of agriculture , the date of which varied by geographic region.
In some areas, such as the Near East , agriculture was already underway by the end of the Pleistocene , and there the Mesolithic is short and poorly defined.
In areas with limited glacial impact, the term " Epipalaeolithic " is sometimes preferred. Regions that experienced greater environmental effects as the last ice age ended have a much more evident Mesolithic era, lasting millennia.
In Northern Europe , societies were able to live well on rich food supplies from the marshlands fostered by the warmer climate.
Such conditions produced distinctive human behaviours that are preserved in the material record, such as the Maglemosian and Azilian cultures.
Remains from this period are few and far between, often limited to middens. In forested areas, the first signs of deforestation have been found, although this would only begin in earnest during the Neolithic, when more space was needed for agriculture.
The Mesolithic is characterized in most areas by small composite flint tools: microliths and microburins.
Fishing tackle , stone adzes , and wooden objects, e. These technologies first occur in Africa, associated with the Azilian cultures, before spreading to Europe through the Ibero-Maurusian culture of Northern Africa and the Kebaran culture of the Levant.
However, independent discovery is not ruled out. Although there were several species of human beings during the Paleolithic , by the Neolithic only Homo sapiens sapiens remained.
The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals.
Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat , millet and spelt , and the keeping of dogs , sheep , and goats.
By about 6,—6, BCE, it included domesticated cattle and pigs , the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, and the use of pottery.
The Neolithic period saw the development of early villages , agriculture , animal domestication , tools , and the onset of the earliest recorded incidents of warfare.
It ended when metal tools became widespread in the Copper Age or Bronze Age ; or, in some geographical regions, in the Iron Age. The term Neolithic is commonly used in the Old World , as its application to cultures in the Americas and Oceania that did not fully develop metal-working technology raises problems.
Settlements became more permanent with some having circular houses with single rooms made of mudbrick. Settlements might have a surrounding stone wall to keep domesticated animals in and protect the inhabitants from other tribes.
Later settlements have rectangular mud-brick houses where the family lived together in single or multiple rooms.
Burial findings suggest an ancestor cult where people preserved skulls of the dead. Although some late Eurasian Neolithic societies formed complex stratified chiefdoms or even states, states evolved in Eurasia only with the rise of metallurgy, and most Neolithic societies on the whole were relatively simple and egalitarian.
Wool cloth and linen might have become available during the later Neolithic,   as suggested by finds of perforated stones that depending on size may have served as spindle whorls or loom weights.
In Old World archaeology, the "Chalcolithic", "Eneolithic", or "Copper Age" refers to a transitional period where early copper metallurgy appeared alongside the widespread use of stone tools.
During this period, some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. It is a phase of the Bronze Age before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze.
However, because it is characterized by the use of metals, the Copper Age is considered a part of the Bronze Age rather than the Stone Age.
An archaeological site in Serbia contains the oldest securely dated evidence of copper making at high temperature, from 7, years ago.
The find in June extends the known record of copper smelting by about years, and suggests that copper smelting may have been invented independently in separate parts of Asia and Europe at that time, rather than spreading from a single source.
Timna Valley contains evidence of copper mining 9, to 7, years ago. The process of transition from Neolithic to Chalcolithic in the Middle East is characterized in archaeological stone tool assemblages by a decline in high quality raw material procurement and use.
The Bronze Age is the earliest period in which some civilizations have reached the end of prehistory, by introducing written records.
The Bronze Age or parts thereof are thus considered to be part of prehistory only for the regions and civilizations who adopted or developed a system of keeping written records during later periods.
The invention of writing coincides in some areas with the early beginnings of the Bronze Age. Soon after the appearance of writing, people started creating texts including written accounts of events and records of administrative matters.
The term Bronze Age refers to a period in human cultural development when the most advanced metalworking at least in systematic and widespread use included techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ores, and then combining them to cast bronze.
These naturally occurring ores typically included arsenic as a common impurity. Copper and tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before BCE.
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